The construction of the Parthenon began in 447 BC and took approximately 9 years to complete.
The temple was built to replace an earlier temple, which was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC.
The Parthenon was designed by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates, under the supervision of the sculptor Phidias.
The temple was constructed using Pentelic marble, a high-quality white marble that was quarried from the nearby Mount Pentelicus.
The Parthenon is an example of Doric architecture, characterized by its simple, sturdy columns and lack of ornamentation.
The temple originally housed a 12-meter tall statue of Athena, made of ivory and gold, which was created by Phidias.
The Parthenon’s frieze, a sculptural band that runs around the top of the temple’s exterior, depicts scenes from the Panathenaic festival, which was held in honor of Athena.
The temple’s construction was funded by the Delian League, an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens.
The Parthenon was converted into a Christian church in the 6th century AD, and then into a mosque in the 15th century during the Ottoman rule.
The Parthenon underwent major restoration efforts in the 20th century, including the removal of later additions and repairs to damage from war, earthquakes, and pollution.
In the early 1800s, the British diplomat Lord Elgin removed many of the Parthenon’s sculptures and took them to England. Today, these sculptures are housed in the British Museum in London.
- Despite the damage it has sustained, the Parthenon remains an iconic symbol of ancient Greek architecture and is visited by millions of people every year.